Some Histroy
By Nader AbuJebain
THE ARAB CANAANITES:
IT IS PROVEN HISTORICALLY THAT THE FIRST INHABIT-ANTS OF PALESTINE WERE THE SEMITIC ARAB CANAANITES WHO CAME TO SYRIA (GREAT) IN THE FOURTH MILLENNIUM B.C. AS A MAJOR WAVE AMONG MANY OTHERS THAT IMMIGRATED FROM THE ARAB PENINSULA  AND YEMEN TO SYRIA THAT HOSTED THE CANAANITES AND THE AMORITES AND WHO LIVED IN THE COASTAL REGION WERE CALLED THE PHOENICIANS THE FIRST CONVERTERS OF THE DRAWN SHAPES INTO WRITTEN LETTERS (THE ALPHABETS) . AND WHOEVER IMMIGRATED FROM THE PENINSULA TO THE MESOPOTAMIA INTEGRATED WITH THE SOMMERITES TO FORM THE BABYLONIANS AND TO EGYPT TO INTEGRATE WITH ITS HEMATITE INHABITANTS TO FORM THE PHAROES AND THE EGYPTIANS OF THE  GREAT CIVILIZATION AND TO NORTH AFRICA TO MIX WITH THE HEMATITE INHABITANTS AND WITH THE PHOENICIANS WHO RESIDED THERE DUE TO THEIR MULLET TRAVELING, SUCH A MIX FORMED THE KNOWN TRIBES OF THE BERBER WHO WERE FIERCE FIGHTERS AGAINST THE ROMANS, TO THE EXTENT THAT THE FAMOUS LEADER HANNIBAL TRIED TO CONQUER ROME AND CROSSED THE ALPS ON ELEPHANTS. THE FIRST OF THESE IMMIGRATION WAVES STARTED  AROUND 3500 B.C. AFTER THE DETERIORATION OF THE MAREB DAM IN YEMEN AND THE INCREASE OF THE POPULATION IN RELATION TO THE AREA OF THE LAND, AND THE SCARCITY OF THE WATERS AND RAIN.
AS AN EXTENSION TO THE TRIBAL SYSTEM, THE CANAANITES DEVELOPED TO BECOME KINGDOMS AND INDEPENDENT CITIES, SO PALESTINE CONSISTED OF KINGDOMS AND INDEPENDENT CITIES, IN THE OLD CANAANITES AND AMMORITES ERAS. THE JABOSITES WERE ONE OF THE FAMOUS CANAANITE TRIBES  THAT ESTABLISHED CITIES AND POSTAL ROUTES AND THEIR MOST FAMOUS CITY OF OURSALEM (JERUSALEM), AND THE ANAKION WHO LIVED IN HEBRON, GAZA, AND ISHDOD. AND THE JAWIES WHO BUILT NABULUS  AND ABU GOUSH AND THE GIANTS WHO WERE CALLED ALSO THE HEXOS THAT STOPPED THE EGYPTIAN CONQUEST TO PALESTINE. ALSO THERE WERE OTHER TRIBES THAT SHARED THE LAND WITH THE CANAANITES AS THE MEDINITES AND MAANITES.
A BIG NUMBER OF CITIES WERE ESTABLISHED DURING THE AGE OF THESE ARAB TRIBES SUCH AS JERICHO, ISHDOD, BEIRSHEBA, BEIT DAJAN, HALHOUL, RAFAH, SAROUNA, TOUBAS, ACRES, GAZA, KABUL, AL MAJDAL, RAMLEH, HERBIA, AND JAFFA.
MAIL WAS THEN TRANSPORTED BY HORSES OR ON FOOT AMONG THESE CITIES. AND IT IS KNOWN THAT EVEN WHEN PALESTINE CAME UNDER THE HAITHI, EGYPTIAN, ARAMAIC, HEBREW, ASSYRIAN, AND THE OCCUPATION, THESE COLONIZING STATES KEPT THE CITY-STATE SYSTEM AND LEFT THE CITIZENS TO RULE THEMSELVES BUT THEY KEPT THE TASK OF MAIL AND ITS TRANSPORTATION TO BE DEALT CENTRALLY. AT THE RULING COUNTRY'S POST OFFICES. THE MAIL WAS THEN WRITTEN ON ANIMAL SKINS, PALM TREES OR PYPRUS LEAVES OR MUD PLATES, AS INDICATED  IN THE HISTORICAL FINDINGS OF THAT ERA.

THE PERSIAN OCCUPATION:

THE SITUATION OF THE POSTAL SERVICES STAYED CENTRAL TILL THE PERSIAN OCCUPATION OF 538 B.C. WHICH ANNEXED PALESTNE-SYRIA TO OTHER AREAS OF THE EMPIRE. THE PERSIAN DIVIDED THEIR EMPIRE INTO COUNTIES AND STATES, WHICH HAD A LOCAL AUTONOMOUS  RULE, UNDER THE GOVERNERSHIP OF ONE OF  THE LOCALS THAT IS THE MOST LOYAL TO KISRA "THE EMPEROR OF PERSIA" ASSISTED BY A PERSIAN CONSULTANT . THIS STATE THAT CONTAINED PALESTINE-SYRIA WAS CALLED "THE STATE BEYOND THE RIVER (THE TIGRIS)". THE PERSIANS STARTED ADMINISTRATIVE AND ORGANIZATIONAL REFORMS. THEY STARTED CONSTRUCTING AND PAVING A GREAT NETWORK OF COMMUNICATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL ROUTS, WHICH WERE THE MEAN TO FACILITATE THE MAIL THAT ENABLED  THE CONQUEROR TO SPREAD THE CONTROL OVER THE VAST AREAS BY SENDING THE ORDERS FROM FAR TO BE IMPLEMENTED BY KAISER'S ASSOCIATES.

THE GREEK OCCUPATION

AFTER THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, DISPUTES AND WARS SPREAD BETWEEN HIS INHERETANTS OF PATLIEMIANS AND SOLJOIANS. DURING THAT ERA OF ABOUT 331 B.C. MANY NEW HELLENIC CITIES WERE ESTABLISHED IN PALESTINE, AND THE OLDER CITIES BECAME CULTURAL CENTERS , AND THE CITY-STATE SYSTEM OR AN ALLIANCE AMONG MANY CITIES CAME BACK TO FORM A STATE. AN EXAMPLE OF SUCH AN ALLIANCE IN PALESTINE WAS THAT OF THE CITIES OF PAELLA, UTHEIROPOLIS (BEIT JEBREIN) , JARASH, PATLIMEIS(ACRE), PHILADELPHIA (AMMAN), SCETHOPOLIS(BEISAN), AND NIAPOLIS (NABLUS), AND ANTACHIA WAS THE CAPITAL OF SYRIA AND PALESTINE IN THE SOLOKIANS AGE, SO THE MAIL WAS COLLECTED IN THAT CAPITAL THEN TO BE TRANSMITTED LATER FROM THER TO THE DIFFERENT AREAS.

THE ARAB STATE OF ALANBAT (PETRA)

AT THE SAME TIME OF THE GREEKS AN ARAB REBELLIANT INDEPENDENT STATE CAME INTO THE SEEN IN THE AREA OF PALESTINE AND IN THE INNER SYRIA. THEIR CAPITAL THEN WAS THE FAMOUS CITY OF PETRA IN THE MOUNTAINS EAST OF THE JORDAN RIVER. THE ANBAT THEN CONTROLLED THE ROUTS AND THE MAIL WHICH ENABLED THEM TO CUT THE ROADS AND PREVENT THE KING'S ORDER TO THE GOVERNORS, THIS CONTROL GAVE ALANBAT A LEVERAGE TO DECLARE THEIR LIMITED INDEPENDENCE AND PROTECT THEIR STATE.

THE ROMAN OCCUPATION:

THEN AFTERWARDS THE ROMAN ERA STARTED IN 64 B.C. AND PALESTINE RETURNED AS IN THE PERSIAN ERA TO FORM WITH SYRIA AND PETRA WHAT WAS CALLED THEN THE "ARAB STATE", TO BE AN IMPERIAL STATE, UNDER THE DIRECT RULE OF THE EMPEROR HIMSELF IN ROME; WHO APPOINTED A SPECIAL ENVOY TO GOVERN, AND TO PROTECT THE ROADS, TRANSPORT THE MAIL, FORM THE GARRISONS, COLLECT THE TAXES, APPLY THE NECESSARY PUBLIC REFORMS, AND MOST IMPORTANTLY TO PROTECT THE BORDERS FROM THE PERSIAN AND BEDWIN CAMPAIGNS. AT THE SAME TIME ROME  ALLOWED CERTAIN AUTONOMY FOR SOME AREAS.

THE ARAB STATE OF TADMUR (PALMYRA):

AT THE TIME OF THE ROMANS ANOTHER  ARAB REBELLIANT INDEPENDENT STATE OF PALMYRA AS TADMUR STATE (PALMYRA) CAME INTO THE SEEN IN PALESTINE.  PALMYRA ALSO CONTROLLED THE ROUTS AND THE MAIL TO BECOME A GATHERING CENTER FOR THE ALL THE SYRIAN ROUTS TO THE ARAB PENINSULA, IRAQ, AND ROME, ALSO THE ROUTS BETWEEN THE ARAB PENINSULA AND IRAQ TO ROME. THIS ALSO EMPOWERED PALMYRA AS IT DID TO ALANBAT TO CUT THE ROADS AND PREVENT THE KING'S ORDER TO THE GOVERNORS. SUCH CONTROL THAT GAVE PALMYRA WITH PALESTINE AS A PART OF THE STATE TO DECLARE ITS
INDEPENDENCE FROM ROME . THIS PROVOKED THE ROMANS TO ENTER IN A WAR AGAINST PALMYRA AND DESTROYED ITS CAPITAL, AND IMPRISONED ZANOBIA THE ARAB QUEEN OF PALMYRA AND THE ROMANS CHAINED HER IN GOLDEN SHACKLES AND DROVE HER TO ROME TO BE EXECUTED THERE .

THE BYZANTINE OCCUPATION:

AFTER THE DIVISION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE INTO WESTERN AND EASTERN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRES, PALESTINE STAYED UNDER THE BYZANTINE RULE TILL THE ARAB ISLAMIC WAVE THAT CAME TO PALESTINE TO RETURN ITS ARABIC FACE. ALTHOUGH THER WAS AT THE BYZANTINE ERA AN AUTONOMOUS RULE FOR THE ARAB GHASSASINAH IN PALESTINE WITH THE  TOWN OF JIFNAH (NEAR RAMALLAH) AS THE CAPITAL. PALESTINE WAS DIVIDED INTO 3 REGIONS: THE FIRST PALESTINE IN THE MIDDLE AND THE COAST, AND ITS CENTER WAS CEASARIA AND ITS FAMOUS CITIES WERE ELIA'A (JERUSALEM), NIAPOLIS (NABLUS), JOPPA (JAFFA), HEBRON, RAFIA (RAFAH), AND ESHKILON. WHILE THE SECOND PALESTINE IN THE GALILEE WITH THE CENTER OF SCETHOPOLIS(BEISAN), AND THE CITIES OF JADARAH AND TIBERIAS. THE THIRD PALESTINE KEPT THE ROMAN NAME OF THE ARAB STATE WITH PETRA AS THE CENTER TO INCLUDE SOUTH PALESTINE OF THE NEGEV DESERT AND BEIR SHIEBA. THERE WAS ALSO THE PHOENICIAN STATE IN THE NORTH WHERE ITS SOUTHERN REGION INCLUDED THE NORTH OF PALESTINE WITH THE CITIES OF SAFAD, ACRE, AND HAIFA. THE MAIL USED TO BE COLLECTED IN THESE CENTERS AND THEN SENT TO THE OTHER CENTERS TO BE DISTRIBUTED TO THE CITIES.

THE ARAB STATE :

THE "RASHIDUN" CALIPHS :
THEN THE ARAB ISLAMIC LIBERATION OF PALESTINE CAME IN THE SEVENTH CENTURY A.D. AND THE ARAB.
SYRIA WHICH INCLUDED PALESTINE, ALONG WITH OTHER ARAB AREAS WERE DIVIDED INTO REGIONS, AND PALESTINE FELL INTO THE TWO  REGIONS OF PALESTINE AND JORDAN.  THE ARABS WERE AWARE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MAIL IN THE POLITICAL LIFE, SO THEY TOOK GOOD CARE OF THE POSTAL FACILITIES AND IMPROVED THE SERVICES TO CONNECT BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT AREAS AND REGIONS OF THE FAST EXPANDING VAST ISLAMIC EMPIRE. THE ARABS UTILIZED THE HORSES TO TRANSPORT THE MAIL, AND THEY PAVED THE ROADS, BUILT THE STATIONS AND REST AREAS, AND ALSO CONSTRUCTED THE TOWERS AND THE LANDMARKS THAT INDICATE THE DISTANCES BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT POINTS. AT THAT TIME THE SENDER USED TO STAMP HIS/HER PRIVATE SEAL OR TO GIVE THE MESSENGER THE  PERSONAL RING AS A PROOF OF AUTHENTICITY.

THE UMAYYADS AND THE ABBASIDS
A NUMBER OF ISLAMIC GOVERNMENTS RULED PALESTINE SOME WERE ARAB ISLAMIC GOVERNMENTS SUCH AS THE UMAYYADS AND THE EARLY ABBASIDS (661-861), AND OTHER NON ARAB ISLAMIC GOVERNMENTS SUCH AS THE LATE  ABBASIDS, FATIMIDS, TULUNIDS, ZANKIDS, NOURIDS, AYYUBIDS, AND THE MAMLUKS (861-1516). THE UMAYYADS KEPT THE REGIONS SYSTEM OF THE RASHIDUN, AND PALESTINE FELL IN THREE OF THE FIVE SYRIAN REGIONS, AND THEY ARE THE REGIONS OF JORDAN, PALESTINE, AND THE QANSAREIN REGION.  IN THE SAME MANNER THE ABBASIDS ALSO KEPT THE  SAME REGIONAL SYSTEM BUT CHANGED THE REGIONS TO STATES. SO THE LOCATION OF  PALESTINE WITHIN THE DIFFERENT STATES WAS FLUCTUATING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE POLITICAL  ATMOSPHERE IN OPPOSING THE FOREIGN CAMPAIGNS AND THE INTERNAL REVOLTS. IT WAS COMMON AT THE TIME OF THE REVOLTS, THAT THE GOVERNOR IN PALESTINE WOULD DECLARE THE INDEPENDENCE AND THE NON-PAYING OF THE TAXES TO THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT OF BAGHDAD. ESPECIALLY AT THE END OF THE EARLY ABBASIDS ERA WHEN THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT BECAME VERY WEAK DUE TO THE CONTIGUOUS OUTSIDE WARS AND INSIDE REVOLTS.

THE ISLAMIC STATE :

THE MAMLUKS:

THE MAMLUKS DIVIDED SYRIA IN GENERAL AND PALESTINE IN PARTICULAR INTO PRINCIPALITIES THAT CAME UNDER THE RULE OF THE SYRIAN SULTAN (KING) OR THE EGYPTIAN SULTAN (KING), EACH PRINCIPALITY HAD COUNTIES AND SECTIONS, PALESTINE IN  THE MAMLUKS ERA WAS IN THREE PRINCIPALITIES, JERUSALEM IN THE MIDDLE, SAFAD IN THE NORTH,  AND GAZA IN THE SOUTH. IT WAS NOTED THAT THE MAMLUKS AND THEIR AGENTS HAD IMPROVED THE POSTAL SERVICES TO A GREAT DEAL, SINCE IT HAD A NOTICEABLE IMPORTANCE IN THE WARS AGAINST THE CRUSADERS AND THE MAGHOULS. THE MAMLOUKS INTRODUCED THE CARRIER-PIGEONS SYSTEM IN ADDITION TO THE CAMELS, HORSES, AND WALK-MEN. THEY EVEN HAD A SPECIAL DEPARTMENT IN THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE CARRIER-PIGEONS IN ADDITION TO THE SPECIAL DEPARTMENT OF THE MAIL DEPARTMENT, WHICH WAS VERY WELL ORGANIZED AND ITS WORKERS ENJOYED A VASTLY RECOGNIZED IMMUNITY AND HAD A SPECIAL NECKLACE WITH A CERTAIN DESIGN, AND SOME QURANIC VERSES FOR IDENTIFICATION.

THE EUROPEAN CRUSADER AND THE ASIAN MAGHOULIAN OCCUPATION:

THE SYSTEM OF THE MINARETS, WHICH SIMPLY DESCRIBED AS THAT THE MINARET WOULD BE ON A HIGH LOCATION WHERE THE FIRE WOULD BE LIT AT  NIGHT, OR SMOKE WOULD BE DISPLAYED DURING THE DAY, SO THE SIGN WOULD BE TRANSMITTED TO THE NEXT MINARET, AND TO THE NEXT, AND SO ON TILL  THE NECESSARY MESSAGE WAS DELIVERED TO THE CONCERNED PARTY TO BE PREPARED FOR THE CONFRONTATION.
THE MINARETS HAD BEEN DEVELOPED, AND BECAME  AN IMPORTANT WAY OF COMMUNICATIONS DURING THE CRUSADER WARS. SUCH A SYSTEM ENABLED THE CRUSADERS , AND THE MAGHOULS TO CONTROL LARGE AREAS OF THE PALESTINIAN AND OTHER ARAB LANDS. SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT STATIONS FOR THE MINARETS, THE PIGEON TOWERS, AND THE MAIL IN GENERAL IN PALESTINE THROUGH THE AGES WERE GAZA, JERUSALEM, NABLUS, TIBERIAS, AND JAFFA. IT WAS ALSO NOTED THAT DURING THE CRUSADER WARS, THE ARAB PALESTINIAN CHRISTIAN WOMEN, HAD USED A SIMILAR METHOD TO THE MINARETS, BY LIGHTING CANDLES IN FRONT OF THEIR WINDOWS FACING THE CARMEL MOUNTAINS TO WARN THE ARAB AND MOSLEM TROOPS ABOUT THE LOCATIONS, AND THE NUMBERS OF THE FOREIGN ARMIES. THE ACCURACY OF THESE SYSTEMS OF THE MINARETS, AND THE CARRIER PIGEONS WAS THAT IF A MESSAGE WAS SENT FROM BAGHDAD IN THE MORNING IT WOULD REACH CAIRO AT NIGHT OF THE SAME DAY, OR VICE VERSA.

THE TURKISH (OTTOMAN) OCCUPATION:

WHEN THE TURKISH OTTOMANS DEFEATED THE MAMLUKS AT MARJ DABEQ IN 1516 THE OCCUPIED PALESTINE ALONG WITH THE OTHER ARAB LANDS. THE TURKS KEPT THE SYSTEM OF PRINCIPALITIES THAT WAS DURING THE MAMLUKS ERA;  BUT THE  TURKS CHANGED THE NAMES INTO GOVERNORATES WHERE THE MAIL TO AND FROM THE DIFFERENT AREAS WOULD BE THROUGH THE GOVERNERATE CENTER.
ALSO AT THAT PERIOD THE OTTOMAN TURKS HAD ESTABLISHED CERTAIN IMPORTANT CENTERS, AS JERUSALEM, FOR EXAMPLE, THAT FOLLOWED THE SULTAN DIRECTLY IN ISTANBUL, WITH INDEPENDENT MAIL SERVICE. AT THE END OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY AFTER THE REBELLION OF THE GOVERNOR OF SYRIA AGAINST THE CENTRAL RULE OF ISTANBUL, SYRIA WAS DIVIDED INTO THREE BAIKDOMS, WITH MANY SECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS, PALESTINE THEN WAS WITHIN THE DAMASCUS BAIKDOM UNDER THE RULERSHIP OF A "BAIK", AS ALL OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS THAT WERE RULED THEN BY BAIKS.
SUCH A SYSTEM STAYED IN USE TILL THE LATER HALF OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY WHEN THE NEW BAIKDOM OF SIDON WAS FORMED THAT BECAME LATER THE ACRE GOVERNERATE. THE OTTOMANS STARTED AT THE END OF  THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ADOPTING THE "PASHADOMS" OR THE STATE SYSTEM WERE THESE PASHADOMS WERE GOVERNED BY A "PASHA" APPOINTED BY THE SULTAN IN ISTANBUL (USUALLY THE "PASHA" TITLE  WAS BOUGHT), WHICH MEANT THAT THE RICHER  WOULD BE ABLE TO GOVERN, AND NECESSARILY THE MOST QUALIFIED.

PALESTINE (THE AREA WITHIN THE BRITISH MANDATE BOUNDRIES) WAS A PART OF TWO DIFFERENT PASHA-DOMS, THE FIRST WAS THE DAMASCUS PASHADOM WHICH INCLUDED THE MIDDLE OF PALESTINE, (JERUSALEM, AND NABLUS AREAS), AND THE SECOND PASHA-DOM WHICH INCLUDED THE GALILEE, AND THE PALESTINIAN COAST FROM RAS ALNAQOURAH TILL RAFAH WAS CALLED THE ACRE PASHADOM, WHILE JERUSALEM WAS A SPECIAL PASHADOM THAT THE SULTAN APPOINTED A SPECIAL PASHA WHO FOLLOWED THE PASHA OF DAMASCUS. AT THAT TIME THEIR WAS A FAMOUS PALESTINIAN LEADER "DHAKA AL OMAR"  WHO DECLARED THE INDEPENDENCE IN THE NORTH OF PALESTINE (SAFAD, TIBERIAS, NAZARETH, ACRE, AND NABLUS); WHICH PROVOKED ISTANBUL IN SENDING THE ARMIES TO FIGHT AL OMAR AND BRING HIM BACK TO THE  CENTRAL GOVERNMENT, BUT DHAHER AL OMAR WAS A TRUE FIGHTER THAT STAYED IN THE BATTLE GROUNDS ALONG WITH HIS PALESTINIAN COMRADES TILL THEY WERE ALL MARTYRED IN 1775.THE SULTAN APPOINTED AHMAD PASHA ALJAZZAR TO SUCCEEDED DHAHER ALOMAR . AND AHMED PASHA ALJAZZAR IS THE FAMOUS PASHA OF ACRE WHO HAD THE KNOWN MOSQUE, AND HE IS THE ONE THAT WAS ABLE TO STOP NAPOLEON'S CONQUER IN PALESTINE DURING THE FRENCH CAMPAIGN.

AS WE KNOW NAPOLEON STARTED CONQUERING PALESTINE THROUGH THE SOUTH COMING FROM EGYPT WHICH WAS HIS FIRST STATIONS HE  STARTED BY OCCUPYING GAZA, THEN OPENING JAFFA IN MAY 1799, AFTER SURROUNDING THE CITY FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME CAUSING A HUNGER SITUATION IN THE CITY. THEN THE JAFFAIANS SURRENDERED AFTER BEING TRICKED INTO NAPOLEON'S PROMISE OF AMNESTY; BUT AFTER THE CITY'S SURRENDER NAPOLEON BUTCHERED ALL OF JAFFA'S MEN IN THE KNOWN LOCATION OF TEL ALREISH NEAR JAFFA. THEN AFTER THE DEFEAT OF THE FRENCH AND THE EVACUATION OF THE BRITISH TROOPS FROM EGYPT, THE NEW POLITICAL POWER OF MOHAMMED ALI PASHA OF EGYPT EMERGED INTO THE AREANA, THEN PALESTINE CAME UNDER HIS RULE AS A PART OF THE REST OF  THE SYRIAN AREAS, AFTER BEING OPENED BY ALI'S ADOPTED SON IBRAHIM PASHA. THIS RULE STAYED IN PALESTINE FOR ABOUT 10 YEARS (1831-1840) WHEN A LOT OF INFERNAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MILITARY REFORMS OCCURRED AND THE MODERN TYPE OF GOVERNMENT WAS ESTABLISHED TILL THE DEFEAT OF MOHAMMED ALI AND THE RETREAT OF IBRAHIM PASHA TO EGYPT, AND THE RETURN OF PALESTINE TO OTTOMAN TURKISH AUTHORITY WHEN THEY TRIED POORLY TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION IN THE AREA.
THE MODERN MAIL SERVICES STARTED IN PALESTINE ABOUT 1840 AFTER THE RETURN OF THE  TURKISH POWER, AND THE CORRESPONDENCES WERE TRANSPORTED BETWEEN PALESTINE AND ISTANBUL AND AMONG THE DIFFERENT CITIES AND AREAS WEEKLY AND/OR MONTHLY BY MESSENGERS ON FOOT OR ON HORSES LATER (WHICH MEANT THAT THE ARABS WERE MORE ADVANCED AT THE TIME OF THE ARAB GOVERNMENT AGES, THAN THE TIME OF THE TURKS WHO TRIED TO DEPRESS THE ARABS AND TO INCREASE THE RATE OF ILLITERACY AMONG THEM FOR CENTURIES). IN 1867 THERE WERE 2 WEEKLY MAILINGS BETWEEN JERUSALEM AND JAFFA AND IN 1884 A DAILY MAILING TOOK PLACE BETWEEN JAFFA AND NABLUS. THEN AFTER THE OPENING OF RAILWAY BETWEEN JAFFA AND JERUSALEM IN1910 THE MAIL WAS TRANSPORTED DAILY BETWEEN THE TWO CITIES, ALSO BETWEEN HAIFA AND DAMASCUS, WHILE SAFAD STARTED HAVING 2 MAILINGS WEEKLY. UNTIL THE ISSUANCE OF THE STAMPS IN THE OTTOMAN TURKISH EMPIRE IN 1856, THE ONLY MEAN THAT WAS TO IDENTIFY THE ORIGIN OF THE LETTER IS THE CANCELLATION STAMP WHICH INDICATED THE NAME OF THE CITY. AFTER THE USE OF THE STAMPS IN PALESTINE A SIMILAR CANCELLATION WAS IMPRINTED ON THE STAMPS TO INDICATE THE CITY OF ORIGIN.

ALSO THE CONSULATES OF THE 6 EUROPEAN POWERS THEN (BRITAIN, FRANCE, RUSSIA, GERMANY, ITALY AND AUSTRIA) THAT WERE IN PALESTINE, OPENED THEIR OWN POSTAL OFFICES IN JERUSALEM AND JAFFA DUE TO THE WEAKNESS OF "THE SICK EUROPEAN MAN" TURKEY AT LATER HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. THEN AFTER THE INITIATION OF THE UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION IN 1874, THE POSTAL UNION REGULATED THE POSTAL METHODS, AND UNIFIED THE POSTAL CHARGES AMONG THE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. BUT THE FOREIGN CONSULATES KEPT THEIR OFFICES IN PALESTINE TO INCREASE THE POLITICAL HUMILIATION OF THE OTTOMAN TURKISH GOVERNMENT, AND TO HELP IN TRANSPORTING THE ZIONIST SETTLEMENTS FREELY, UNDER THE CLAIM OF THAT THE SETTLERS ARE EUROPEAN CITIZENS.

AT THAT TIME EACH CONSULATE USED ITS OWN COUNTRY'S STAMPS FOR ITS OWN AND ITS CITIZENS CORRESPONDANCES, FRANCE AND BRITAIN ISSUED SPECIAL STAMPS TO BE USED IN THE AREA WITH THE WORD LEVANT WHICH MEANT (THE EAST) .
THEN FRANCE IMPROVED THE PROCESS LATER BETWEEN (1876-1897) BY IDENTIFYING THE ORIGIN OF
THE LETTER BY PRINTING A SPECIAL NUMBER ON THE STAMP FOR EACH DIFFERENT CITY, SO IT WAS 5129 FOR PORT SAIED, 3704 AND 5080 FOR ALEXANDRIA, AND USED 3169 AND 5089 FOR JAFFA, ALSO FRANCE USED SOMETIMES TO ADD AN OVERPRINT OF THE  WORD PALESTINE ON THE STAMPS . WHILE RUSSIA AND ITALY ADDED AN OVERPRINT OF THE WORD JERUSALEM OR JAFFA ON THEIR STAMPS. GERMANY AND AUSTRIA KEPT ON USING THEIR STAMPS BUT LATER ADDED AN OVERPRINT OF THE OTTOMAN TURKISH CURRENCY OF THE PARA AND PILASTERS ON THE STAMPS.
WHILE TURKEY FAILED TO STOP THIS UNACCEPTABLE ATTITUDE. IN 1910 THE OTTOMAN SULTAN ISSUED A DECREE FORBIDDING THE OTTOMAN NATIONALS FROM USING ANY STAMP OTHER THAN THE TURKISH OTTOMAN STAMPS AFTER FAILING IN STOPPING THE FOREIGN CONSULATES IN USING THEIR STAMPS FOR THE CORRESPONDENCES.
ALSO IT WAS PERMITTED TO THE GOVERNOR OF EGYPT SAIED AND LATER TO KHIDIWI ISMAIEL BETWEEN (1859-1870) TO OPEN THEIR POSTAL OFFICE IN JAFFA, WHICH WAS AN IMPORTANT POSTAL CENTER THEN .
AND EGYPT WAS PERMITTED TO ISSUE A SPECIAL POSTAL LABEL OF THE CENTER TO BE USED FOR THE MAILINGS BETWEEN JAFFA AND EGYPT, SINCE EGYPT DID NOT HAVE ITS OWN STAMPS THEN, SINCE THE FIRST EGYPTIAN STAMP WAS IN 1866.

TURKEY TRIED TO REDUCE THE POSTAL DUES TO THE FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS, TO ENCOURAGE THEM TO USE ITS STAMPS OF LESSER VALUES THAN THE MANDATED VALUES OF THE U.P.U., BUT TURKEY HAD TO CANCEL SUCH REDUCTION AFTER THE UNIVERSAL THREAT OF NOT RECOGNIZING THE TURKISH STAMPS.
THE FOREIGN CONSULATES KEPT ON USING THEIR OWN STAMPS TILL THE BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR I IN 1914 WHEN THE GOVERNMENT CLOSED ALL THE CONSULATES, AND THE OTTOMAN TURKISH STAMPS WERE THE ONLY USED STAMPS IN THE EMPIRE TILL THE ENTRANCE OF THE BRITISH TROOPS TO PALESTINE ON THE 9TH OF JANUARY, 1917 AND ENTERING JERUSALEM ON THE 11TH OF DECEMBER, 1917 WHEN THE USE OF THE OTTOMAN TURKISH STAMPS WAS ABANDONED COMPLETELY AND FINALLY.
 

FOURTH SECTION

 JERUSALEM AND THE PALESTINIAN CITIES IN THE STAMPS

JERUSALEM IS THE CAPITAL OF PALESTINE. IT WAS BUILT 5000 YEARS AGO BY THE JABOSITES AND DEVELOPED BY THE BELIEVING FAIR CANAANITE KING "MILEKI SADEQ" WHO WAS BELOVED BY HIS PEOPLE FOR HIS FAIRNESS, GENEROSITY AND COURAGE. MILEKI SADEQ WAS THE KING WHO WELCOMED THE PROPHET ABRAHAM, WHEN CAME TO PALESTINE AS A RESIDING REFUGEE IN THE LAND. MILEKI SADEQ CALLED JERUSALEM THEN "UR SALEM" WHICH MEANT "DAR AL SALAAM" "THE HOME OF PEACE" OR "THE CITY OF THE CANAANITE GOD (SALEM OR SALAAM)", HE ALSO CHOSE AN IDEAL LOCATION FOR THE CITY, IN THE MIDDLE OF THE KINGDOM, PROTECTED BY THE MOUNT OF OLIVES, AND THE ROUTES GOING EAST-WEST AND NORTH-SOUTH PASS THROUGH THE CITY, AND HAD ITS OWN PROTECTED CLOSE BY WATER RESOURCE, THE SOLIEMAN POOLS, ALSO THE HOLY CITY WAS CALLED MANY OTHER NAMES THROUGH THE AGES, AS AL QUDS (THE HOLY), BEIT AL MAQDES (HOUSE OF HOLINESS), AYELAH, URSHALEEM, YABOUS (JEBUSITES CITY), AND ELIA CAPITOLONIA, IN ADDITION TO ITS ORIGINAL NAME  URSALEM.

.JERUSALEM AS THE REST OF PALESTINE CAME UNDER THE RULE OF  THE ARAB CANAANITES, AND JEBUSITES, THE ARAB GHASSANIDS, AND THE ARAB MOSLEMS, IN ADDITION TO THE AMORITE, HITTITE, PHAROE, HEBREW, PERSIAN, ASSYRIAN, BABYLONIAN, GREEK, ROMAN, SALJUK MAMLUKS, OTTOMAN, TURKS, BRITISH AND ZIONIST OCCUPATIONS.

IT IS KNOWN, AND HISTORICALLY DOCUMENTED THAT WITHIN THE FIVE THOUSAND YEARS, THE ARABS WERE ALWAYS THE MAJORITY OF THE CITY'S RESIDENTS EXCEPT FOR A SHORT PERIOD, WHEN THE HEBREWS INVADED THE CITY UNDER  DAVID'S LEADERSHIP, AND RULED PARTS OF PALESTINE FOR 600 YEARS. JERUSALEM WAS  A HOLY CITY TO SO MANY PEOPLE SINCE IT HAD THE  TEMPLES OF SOLIEMAN, JUPITER, AND HEROD.

SINCE  THE ARAB MOSLEMS ENTERED THE CITY IN 637 A.D. JERUSALEM MAINTAINED A SPECIAL STATUS FOR ALL THE CALIPHS WHO MADE THEIR CAPITALS IN AL- MADINAH AS AL RASHIDUN, IN DAMASCUS AS THE UMAYYADS, IN BAGHDAD AS THE ABBASIDS, IN CAIRO AS THE FATIMIDS, AND THE  MAMLUKS, AND IN ISTANBUL AS THE OTTOMANS. BUT ALL OF THE CALIPHS ATTENDED THE CITY, RESTORING ITS MOSQUES, AND PRESENTING SO MANY GIFTS FOR ITS CENTERS. JERUSALEM REMAINED AS AN ARAB CITY SINCE THEN UNTIL OUR CURRENT TIME; EXCEPT FOR A SHORT WHILE OF 78 YEARS DURING THE WESTERN CRUSADER OCCUPATION. IN JERUSALEM THERE ARE MANY SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, HOSPICES, ORPHANAGES, SHRINES, QURAN  RECITING AND MEMORIZING COLLEGES, ALL THAT WERE BUILT DURING THE MAMLUKS'  ERA  AND MANY OF THESE BUILDINGS ARE STILL IN USE TILL NOW.
JERUSALEM IS CALLED (AL QUDS) "THE HOLY"  TO INDICATE ITS HOLINESS AND IMPORTANCE TO THE THREE MONOLITHIC RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD, AND IT IS STATED THAT THE  PEOPLE WILL BE GATHERING IN JERUSALEM ON THE JUDGMENT DAY.

TO THE MOSLEMS, JERUSALEM WAS THE FINAL DISTENTION OF THE PROPHET MOHAMMED'S TRIP TO MECCA  (AL ISRAA), BEFORE HIS  ACCENSION TO THE SKY  (AL MIRAJ). BESIDES THAT, AL AQSA WHICH IS BLESSED BY GOD WAS THE  FIRST QIBLA TO THE MOSLEMS BEFORE MECCA AND IS STILL CONSIDERED THE THIRD HOLIEST SANCTUARY AFTER  AL KAABAH IN MECCA AS THE FIRST, AND THE PROPHET'S MOSQUE IN AL -MEDINAH AS THE  SECOND. AL AQSA MOSQUE LOCATION WAS FIRST IDENTIFIED BY CALIPH OMAR IBN AL KHATTAB,   WHO CAME TO  RECEIVE  THE CITY FROM BISHOP ESTEPHANOS, OF JERUSALEM AND SIGNED THE OMAR'S PROMISE, AND WHEN HE SAW THE  LOCATION, HE STARTED TO CLEAN IT HIMSELF FROM THE RUINS AND THE DEBRIS THAT WAS COVERING THE AREA . AL AQSA WAS RESTORED AND REBUILT BY SALAH EDDINE AL-AYOBI AFTER HE DEFEATED THE WESTERN CRUSADERS IN THE GLORIOUS BATTLE OF HITTIEN, AND AFTER THE CRUSADERS HAD CONVERTED THE MOSQUE INTO A CHURCH AND STABLE, AFTER THE LIBERATION  SALAH EDDINE PLACED THE MINBAR OF KING NOUREDDINE  ZINKI THAT HE BROUGHT FROM DAMASCUS TO FULFILL THE KING'S WILL, WHO HOPED TO LIBERATE AL AQSA BEFORE HIS DEATH. AND IN JERUSALEM ALSO THERE IS THE MOSQUE OF THE DOME OF  THE ROCK, THAT WAS BUILT BY THE UMAYYAD  CALIPH ABDUL MALIK IBN MARWAN, WHO BUILT THE MOSQUE OVER THE ROCK THAT THE PROPHET MOHAMMAD STEPPED ON WHEN HE ACCENDED TO  THE SKY, AND IT IS WHERE  THE PROPHET WAS THE  IMAM AND LED ABRAHAM, MOSES, JESUS, AND ALL THE OTHER PROPHETS IN PRAYER. THE DOME OF THE ROCK WHICH IS CIRCULAR IN SHAPE TO RESEMBLE THE SKY WAS BUILT ON AN OCTAGONAL BEAM ON TOP OF 8 COLUMNS, AND ITS KNOWN THAT THE OCTAGON IS DERIVED FROM 2 SQUARES, AND THE SQUARE WITH ITS 4 SIDES IS A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE EARTH WITH ITS  4 DIRECTIONS; SO THE DOME OF THE ROCK IS WHERE THE EARTH MEETS THE SKY, ALSO THERE ARE QURANIC INSCRIPTIONS THAT TALK ABOUT THE PROPHET JESUS CHRIST, THE SON OF  PALESTINE. ALSO JERUSALEM IS KNOWN FOR HAVING A LOT OF GRAVES TO THE 'SAHABAH', THE PROPHET'S ASSOCIATES AND VISITING POINTS FOR MANY KINGS AND HOLY PEOPLE.

JERUSALEM IS WHERE JESUS CHRIST WAS CRUCIFIED, AND WHERE HE CALLED FOR THE PEOPLE TO GO BACK TO  WORSHIP GOD AND CLEAN THEIR RELIGION FROM ALL THE HERESY AND INFILTRATION, AND FROM THE TOP OF THE MOUNT OF OLIVES JESUS PRACTICED HIS MIRACLES IN THE NAME OF GOD OF CURING THE SICK, ENLIGHTENING THE BLIND, AND REVIVING THE DEAD, AND IN JERUSALEM JESUS HAD THE LAST SUPPER WITH HIS DISCIPLES, AND TOLD THEM WHO WILL BETRAY HIM, AND WHO WILL DENY HIM, AND IT IS IN JERUSALEM WHERE JESUS CHRIST HAD RISEN FROM THE DEATH AND ASCENDED TO THE SKY.

AND FOR THE JEWS, THEY BELIEVE JERUSALEM IS THE CAPITAL OF THEIR KINGDOM, AND IT IS WHERE ABRAHAM WAS  TO SACRIFICE HIS SON, AND IT HAS THE REMAINS OF THE HERODIN AND THE SOLEIMAN TEMPLES, AND THE ARK OF THE CONVENT IS BURIED IN THE WESTERN WALL OF THE CITY, AND MANY OF THE JEWISH KINGS AND PROPHETS ARE BURIED THERE .

JERUSALEM IS CONSIDERED AN ISLAMIC SYMBOL OR A CHRISTIAN SYMBOL ON MANY STAMPS ISSUED BY SEVERAL COUNTRIES. NOT ONLY THAT; ALSO THE NIGER HAD ISSUED A SPECIAL STAMP ABOUT JERUSALEM AS A HOLY CITY, AND THE STAMP SHOWS JERUSALEM WITH THE CRESCENT, THE CROSS AND THE STAR OF DAVID TO RESEMBLE  THE THREE MONOLITHIC RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD. MANY OF THE COUNTRIES EMPHASIZED JERUSALEM ON THEIR STAMPS, WHILE JORDAN AND PALESTINE COMMEMORATED OTHER PALESTINIAN CITIES ON THEIR  STAMPS ALSO JERUSALEM WITH THE DOME OF THE ROCK WAS  SHOWN ON MANY STAMPS ISSUED BY MANY COUNTRIES, SUCH AS THE ISLAMIC CONFERENCES AND COUNTRIES ISSUING A STAMP WITH A REVENUE TO THE WELFARE OF THE FAMILIES OF  THE PALESTINIAN MARTYRS, OR TO THE STAMPS OF THE MEMORY OF BURNING OF AL AQSA, OR THE ONES COMMEMORATING AL INTEFADA AND THE DECLARATION OF THE STATE, AND ON THE INTERNATIONAL DAY OF THE SOLIDARITY WITH THE PALESTINIAN PEOPLE, ON THE STAMPS COMMEMORATING THE 800TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BATTLE OF HITTIEN OR OTHERS ON THE MEMORY OF THE DEATH OF SALAH EDDINE AL AYOUBI. AND THE ISSUING COUNTRIES OF THE PRECEDED STAMPS WERE, JORDAN, EGYPT, SYRIA, LEBANON,  IRAQ, SAUDI ARABIA, KUWAIT, YEMEN, PAKISTAN, IN ADDITION TO IRAN THAT ISSUED AL QUDS STAMP YEARLY, AND EGYPT ISSUED A STAMP YEARLY ON THE U.N. DAY BETWEEN 1968-1978 .

IN ADDITION JERUSALEM APPEARED ON STAMPS ISSUED BY GUINEE', AND MALAYSIA THAT INSCRIBED 'FOR THE LIBERATION OF PALESTINE' ON THE STAMPS, ALSO THE MALDIVES THAT ISSUED A SET OF 3 STAMPS SHOWING STORIES ABOUT THE REFUGEES MISERY AND A SINGLE STAMP WITH THE DOME OF THE ROCK, AND IRAN ALSO HAD ISSUED STAMPS WITH JERUSALEM'S PICTURE ON THE OCCASION OF PROPHET'S BIRTHDAY, AND ON A STAMP SUPPORTING HIZBULLAH STRUGGLE FOR THE LIBERATION OF SOUTH LEBANON. ALSO IRAQ USED TO PUT THE PICTURE OF JERUSALEM ON THE STAMPS COMMEMORATING JULY REVOLUTION, THE FOUNDATION OF AL BAA'TH PARTY OR THEIRAQI ARMY DAY, AND SAUDI ARABIA ISSUED STAMPS FOR THE CONFIRMATION OF 'JERUSALEM AS AN ARAB CITY', OR ON THE OCCASION OF  ENLARGING THE MOSQUE WITH TWO QIBLAHS. AND KUWAIT WHO ISSUED STAMPS FOR THE CONFIRMATION OF 'JERUSALEM AS AN ARAB CITY', AND JERUSALEM AS A HUMAN HERITAGE, OR THE STAMPS ABOUT AL FEDAYEEN, INCLUDING THE WOMEN AND THE CLERGY MEN.  AND EGYPT HAD ISSUED STAMPS  WITH JERUSALEM'S PICTURE ON THE OCCASION OF PROPHET'S BIRTHDAY, AND ANOTHER ON THE OCCASION OF PRESIDENT'S SADAT VISIT TO JERUSALEM, ALSO MOROCCO ISSUED A STAMP WITH THE PICTURES OF JERUSALEM AND FEZ ON THE OCCASION OF THEM BEING DECLARED AS TWIN CITIES, IN ADDITION LIBYA, TUNISIA, YEMEN, MAURITANIA, COMMORO, BRUNEI, CYPRUS, THE VATICAN, AND ABU DHABI, SHARJA, AND UMM AL QIWAIN ISSUED SINGLE STAMPS SHOWING JERUSALEM.

THE DOME OF THE ROCK AND THE HOLY SEPULCHER IN JERUSALEM WERE ALWAYS THE KNOWN EMBLEM OF THE STAMPS OF THE GREAT PALESTINIAN REVOLUTION (1936-1939) AGAINST THE BRITISH OCCUPATION AND THE ZIONIST COLONIAL SETTLING, AND DURING THE MANDATE PERIOD THE OFFICIAL STAMPS OF PALESTINE SHOWED DIFFERENT PICTURES OF THE DOME OF THE ROCK AND THE CITADEL IN JERUSALEM, RACHEL'S TOMB IN BETHLEHEM, AND A MOSQUE IN TIBERIES. WHILE THE PALESTINIAN NATIONAL AUTHORITY HAD ISSUED STAMPS SHOWING JERUSALEM,  BETHLE-HEM, HEBRON, GAZA AND JERICHO. ALSO JERUSALEM AND THE OTHER PALESTINIAN CITIES WERE SHOWN ON STAMPS ISSUED BY THE PALESTINIAN RESISTANCE MOVEMENT.

JORDAN PLACED THE PICTURE OF THE DOME OF THE ROCK AND AL AQSA MOSQUE IN JERUSALEM ON MANY OF ITS STAMPS, ALSO IT HAD STAMPS SHOWING THE IBRAHIMI SANCTUARY, OMAR MOSQUE, BASILICA OF AGONY, HOLY SEPULCHER, THE NATIVITY CHURCH, THE CHURCH OF VIRGIN MARY. AND JORDAN HAD ISSUED STAMPS FOR THE AID OF THE PALESTINIANS IN 1948-1949, THESE STAMPS HAD THE PICTURES OF THE NOBEL SANCTUARY, AL IBRAHIMI SANCTUARY, OMAR MOSQUE, AND AL- JAZZAR MOSQUE. ALSO JORDAN HAD PUT THE PICTURE OF JERUSALEM AND OTHER PALESTINIAN CITIES AND THE AREA OF THE JORDAN RIVER AND THE DEAD SEA ON ITS STAMPS IN DIFFERENT OCCASIONS AS FOR THE COMMEMORATION OF AL ISRAA WA AL MIRAJ, THE 15TH HIJRI CENTURY, AL HAJ, JERUSALEM AS A HUMAN HERITAGE, THE VISIT OF POPE PAUL VI, ONE YEAR ON THE VISIT,  THE POPE'S NOBLE PRIZE AWARD,  THE OCCASION OF THE HISTORIC MEETING OF THE POPES OF THE CATHOLICS AND THE ORTHODOX, THE PERSIAN EMPIRE, TOURISM, CHRISTMAS, AND EASTER. IN ADDITION TO THE STAMPS COMMEMORATING THE UNITY OF THE TWO BANKS, THE ASSASSINATION OF WASFI EL TAL, AND ON THE 50TH AND 60TH BIRTHDAYS OF KING HUSSEIN, AND WITH KING ABDULLAH ON THE ESTABLISHING THE COUNTRY, WITH SHAREIF HUSSEIN ON THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE ARAB REVOLUTION, OR FOR THE 'AL  BAIT FOUNDATION' AND ON THE OCCASION OF OPENNING OF THE DOME OF THE ROCK AND AL-AQSA AND IT'S THREE RESTORATIONS.